The Great Harrappan civilization!

Indus valley civilization was very great civilization in the world .

When we think about the civilization of ancient World this civilization was very great in the art and Architecture

and also so ahead in the science and technology as compared to Others civilization in the world .

Harrappan civilization people invented Burnt Bricks and Cotton Cloth firstly in the world.

Systematic Construction of Harrappan City is the good example of ancient World highly developed city .That city was very advanced .

The great Bath house of harrappan civilization was really great and amazing in the Construction this bathhouse was well in the construction the art and architecture

Great Bath house

*Town Planning and Structure :-

The Harrappan civilization was distinguished by its system of town planning both harappa and Mohenjo-daro had a Citadel and acropolis,and this was

Possibly Ocupied by members of the ruling class.

The very remarkable thing in this city was it’s townplaning and art architecture of this city was very amazing!

They followed a grid system, systematic planing structure of roads and structure of houses was very great!

The most public and Beatiful structure of Mohenjodaro was it’s great Bath house.

The tank that situated in the citadel mound and is a fine example of beautiful brickswork.

Water was drawn from a largest well in an adjacent room.

The use of burnt bricks in the harrappan city is remarkable, because in the contemporary in the Egypt dried bricks !

In Mohenjodaro the largest building was granary.

The drainage system of Mohenjodaro was very remarkable

*Agricultural System :

The Indus region is not fertile today but the prosperous villages and towns of the past testify that it was fertile in the ancient times. Todays rainfall is very less near about 15cm,in the 4th century B. C.

One of the historian Elexander informs us,that Sindh was a fertile part of the India.

the Indus region had more natural vegetation

The Nile river of Egypt fed Large people at that time Indus river created Sindh and fed it’s people.

The harrappan people probably used Wooden plough that drawn by Oxen

The Indus people sowed seeds in the flood plain in November.

The harappan Villages were Systematic and very beautiful and well planned situated at the flood plains.

Stone sickles may have been used for harvesting the crop .

Gabarband or nalas enclosed by dams for storing water and the Indus people produced wheat barley ,rai, peas, and the like. Sesamom and mustard were grown .

Food grains were stored in the huge granaries in both Mohenjodaro and Harappa.

The Indus valley people were the earliest people to produce cotton and because of this ,The Greeks called the area seldon which is derived from Sindh.

*Domestication Of Animals :-

The harrappan people practiced agriculture ,animals were raised on a large scale .Oxen,baffelloes,goats,Sheeps, and pigs were domesticated Humped bulles were favoured the harappan.,

There is many evidence of dogs ases and camels

Oxen bafelloes,goates,Sheeps, and pigs were domesticated.

Humped bulls were favoured by harrappan people ,there is evidence of dogs and cats from the outset.

*Science technology and Crapt :-

The Indus valley civilization peoples economy was agricultural Economy

The making of bronze tools ,the people of Harappen used many bronze tools and implements of stone.

Ordinarily bronz was made by Smith by mixing tin with Copper.

They produced not only images and utensils but also various tools and weapons such as axes saws knives and spears .

They were used burnt bricks in there construction of houses .

Huge bricks structures suggest that brick laying was an important craft .

The harrappan people also Practiced boat making ,seal making and teracotta manufacturing were also important.

The gold smith mad jwelaries of silver ,gold and precious stones ,The first two material may have been often from Afghanistan and last from south India .

the harrappan were also expert bead maker’s ,the harrappan people also produced beautiful and glossy, gleaming


*Trade and Commerce :-

The important of trade in the life of the indus
People supported not only by graneries at harappa
the harappens conducted considerable trade in
Stone ,metal shell etc.
They didnot use metal money and in all probability they carried exchange through a barter system.

Uncategorized ,

World famous Ellora caves

Rock cut Structure of Ellora caves

Ellora caves are one of the largest ancient rock cut caves temples in the world  Ellora caves are UNESCO world heritage site .

Ellora Caves History

Built during 600 to 1000 CE, Ellora Caves lie in the Sahyadri hills in Aurangabad and is a 2-hour drive from the Ajanta Caves. The Ellora Caves comprise Hindu, Buddhist and Jain temples and over a 100 caves with only 34 open to the public excavated from the basalt cliffs in the Charanandari hills. Ellora Caves served as lodgings to the travelling Buddhist and Jain monks besides being a site for the trade route. There are 17 Hindu caves, 12 Buddhist and five Jain caves with deities, carvings and even monasteries depicting the mythology of each religion. These caves constructed near each other stand for the harmony and solidarity among all faiths and beliefs.

A part of the Hindu and Buddhist Caves were built during the Rashtrakuta dynasty, and the Jain Caves were built by the Yadav dynasty. It is not yet established as to which caves were built first – the Hindu or the Buddhist. Based on the archaeological evidence found at various sites it was deduced that there were essentially three major construction periods for the Ellora caves: early Hindu period from 550 to 600 CE, Buddhist period from 600 to 730 CE, and the final phase, the Jain and Hindu period lasting from 730 to 950 CE.

Ellora Caves Architecture

Although the deities and idols in the caves have been damaged, the paintings, carvings remain as it is. The inscriptions on the walls of the Ellora Caves date back to the 6th century and a famous one is the Rashtrakuta Dantidurga on the mandapa of Cave 15 inscribed during 753 to 757 AD. Out of all the excavations done, Cave 16 or Kailasha temple – a monument dedicated to Shiva is the largest single monolithic rock excavated in the world. It was built during 757-783 AD by Krishna I who was the uncle of Dantidurga.

Buddhist Monuments

Situated in the south of the precinct, these caves are estimated to have been built during 600 to 730 CE. It was first believed that the Buddhist Caves were built before the Hindu Caves but this theory was debunked and with enough evidence to substantiate, it was established that the Hindu caves were constructed before the Buddhist came into being. The earliest Buddhist cave to be built was Cave 6, with Cave 11 and 12 being the last. These caves feature monasteries, shrines which include bodhisattvas, and carvings of Buddha.

Vishvakarma Cave, Cave 10: 

Built around 650 CE the cave is also known as the Carpenter’s Cave because of the finishing of the rock which looks like the wooden beam. Inside the stupa hall, lies the 15 ft statue of Buddha resting in a preaching pose. The cave is the dedicated prayer house among all the caves here and has eight cells and also a portico.

Jain Monuments

The five caves lying to the north of the Ellora Caves belonging to the Digambara sect were excavated in the 9th to 10th century. Smaller than the Hindu and Buddhist Caves, these have the architectural attributes such as mandapa and a pillared verandah. The Jain temples have the carvings of the yaksa and yaksi, gods and goddesses, and devotees all depicting the Jain mythological sensibilities of that time.

Chota Kailasha, Cave 30:

Designed on the same lines as that of the original Kailasha temple or Cave 16 the temple was built in the 9th century along with the Indra Sabha, Cave 32. The temple contains two gigantic statues of Indra, one an eight-armed and the other a 12-armed and in dancing pose. The number of arms depicts Indra’s poses during the dance. The cave also features other deities, and dancers.

Outstanding Universal Value

The Ellora Caves is a historical site located in the Marathwada region of Maharashtra. The caves of this monument are excavations from the Charanandri Hills. These caves were excavated during the rule of Hindu dynasties such as Rashtrakutas and Yadavas. These caves were known to be a resting stop for pilgrims as well as a worshipping site because of its temples and monasteries. These caves were also popular as they were located on the South Asian trade route.

Ellora caves Map

Important Reference Book for the study of Ancient Indian Art and Architecture

  1. Indian art and Culture by -Nitin Singhania

Buy from –https://amzn.to/3fkOrxY

2.Ancient India | First Edition | By Pearson: From the Stone Age to the 12th Century

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3.India’s Ancient Past -by-R. S. Sharma

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4.Early India- by -Romila Thaper.

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Great world Famous Historical site Ajanta caves

Beautiful Ajanta caves

Ajanta caves in the Maharashtra (India)

Ajanta caves are very famous in the world this is World heritage historical sites in India.

Every year Many tourist’s from all over the world visited time to this Awesome place and enjoying their life. The Ajanta Caves are approximately 30 rock cut Buddhist caves monument which date from the 2nd century B. C. E. to about 480 C. E. in Aurangabad district of Maharashtra state of India.

Main Feature

  • The caves include painting painting and rock cut sculptures describe as among the one of the finest surviving example of ancient Indian art Particularly expressive paintings that present emotions through gesture pose and form
  • According to UNESCO these are master peices of Buddhist relegious art that followed .
  • The caves were built in two phases the first phase started around the 2nd century B. C. E. while the second phase was built around 400-650 C. E,
  • According to older account or in abrief  period of 460-480 C. E. according to later scholarship
  • The site is protected monument in the care of the Archaeological survey of India,and since 1983,the Ajanta caves have been a world heritage site.
  • The Buddhist theme of the Ajanta painting recount the life of lord Buddha and tales of his Previous earthly experience .

Ajanta Caves Historical Information

If exploring the chain of caves that comprise Ajanta is on your mind, and you are wondering from where to begin, we suggest the caves that stand out for their historical and artistic excellence.

  • Cave 1: Lying on the eastern side of horseshoe-shaped bluff, this will invariably the first cave you will encounter while exploring the panorama of caves. The sprawling open courtyard on the facade of the cave is the reason for its steeper slope than the other caves. This was done in order to accommodate the grand facade, by cutting deep into the rock face. The artwork and the paintings in the cave, historians believe, was commissioned by Vakataka Emperor, Harishena, for the emphasis on royalty is conspicuous. Also, the Jataka tales depicted here talk about the previous births of Buddha where he was a royal. The cave in particular is breathtaking for its carved facade adorned with relief sculptures, and almost all surface is an embellished one with ornate carvings. The porch, the front court with little cells preceded by pillared antechambers, typical of the caves here in Ajanta, and the frieze over the cave with elaborate depictions of horses, bulls, elephants, lions, meditating monks and apsaras, characterise Cave 1. Apart from the architecture and detailing, it is truly the wealth of paintings adorning large portions of this cave, that leaves a visitor spellbound. Aside from scenes from Jataka tales, you have here two larger-than-life figures of the two Bodhisattvas Vajrapani and Padmapani on each side of the entrance to the Buddhist shrine
  • Cave 2: Adjacent to Cave 1 is another cave whose walls, pillars and ceilings are thick with paintings. The murals portray an apparent bias for the feminine form aside from some 5th century frescoes that depict children studying in school, some listening to the teacher and the others enacting something. The carving of this cave happened between 475 and 477 CE, believed to me commissioned by a woman aide of Emperor Harishena. Unlike Cave 1’s focus on kingship, the paintings and rock carvings in Cave 2 are about powerful women playing a prominent role in the society. This cave is remarkable for its strong pillars and the carvings and paintings in all kinds of decorative themes such as human, animal, vegetation and divine motifs, with plenty of carvings dedicated to the Buddhist goddess of fertility, Hariti.
  • Cave 16: Ensconced smack in the middle of the site with a fleet of stairs leading into the single-storey structure is Cave 16 with two elephant figures placed on either side of the entrance. This cave was commissioned by Emperor Harishena’s minister, Varahadeva and dedicated to the community of monks. Scholars term this the ‘crucial cave’ in terms of influencing the architecture of the entire cave network of Ajanta, and for being a paradigm in understanding the chronology of the second and final phase of the construction of the cave complex. Cave 16 is a Vihara with the customary setup of a main doorway, two aisle doorways and two windows to let in some sunlight and brighten the dark interiors. The wealth of paintings in this cave will hold you in a thrall. Aside from depictions from various Jataka tales there are frescoes recounting mythological events like the miracle of Sravasti, conversion of Nanda – the half brother of Buddha, including the popular Jataka fresco of the Bodhisattva elephant that sacrificed itself to serve as food for starving people. Head to the left of the entrance and follow a clockwise pattern to follow the entire narrative. Explore scenes from the life of Buddha like the one where Sujata is offering food to Buddha robed in white carrying a begging bowl.
  • Cave 17: Like Cave 16, this one too has two stone elephants placed on either side of the entrance. Commissioned by Vakataka prime minister, Varahadeva and with donation from local king Upendragupta, Cave 17 is home to the greatest, and perhaps the most sophisticated, Viraha architecture. The cave also boasts of an assortment of paintings that are well-preserved, and over the years have become synonymous with Ajanta Caves. The broader theme of the frescoes here is bringing out the human virtues as mentioned in the Jataka tales with a growing attention to detail. It comprises a colonnaded porch, an array of pillars each with a unique design, a shrine in an antechamber in the heart of the cave, larger windows to let in more light, and extensive carvings of gods and goddesses from Indian mythology. With 30 important murals in Cave 17 alone including portrayal of Buddha in various postures alongside dabbling in themes as diverse as shipwrecks, lovers in throes of passion, a princess wearing makeup and a couple drinking wine together – a thread picked up from the goings-on of the early 1st millennium society, this cave is historically paramount.

Outstanding Universal Value

The Ajanta Caves in Maharashtra have found their way in the memoirs of a Mughal official of Akbar era in the early 17th century. Lost in the abounding lush green landscapes, they were accidentally discovered and were excavated in 1819 by a British colonial officer on a tiger-hunting party. They have been known to be first stated about in the chaityas and are the most ancient monuments. A major part of these caves were created in the 2nd century BC. With the downfall of the Vakataka empire in 480 AD, these caves were soon abandoned after the death of Harishena. The loyal patrons of these caves fled and Buddhist monasteries

Beautiful Water fall at Ajanta caves
Structure of Ajanta caves
Reference – An Introduction to the Ajanta Caves with example of six caves – Rajesh Sing

Ajanta caves

*Important Reference Book for the study of Ancient India art and Architecture

1.Ancient India | First Edition | By -Upinder Singh, Pearson: From the Stone Age to the 12th Century.

Buy from-https://amzn.to/319yci

2.India’s Ancient Past-R.S.Sharma.

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3. Ancient India – R. C. Mujumdar

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4. Ancient India in Historical Outline-by-D.N.Zha.

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5.Indian Art and Culture -by-Nitin Singhania

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July 2021

Historical places in the world, Historical Places in India, World Civilization,Mysterios Places in the World.


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